Software is a set of instructions that controls your computer hardware.
A computer system requires two types of software:
With an operating system and the correct software application, you can
perform many tasks with your computer including:
When discussing software, people often use the terms program, software,
and application interchangeably. When using these terms, a person is usually
referring to a specific brand name of software application, such as Microsoft
A computer requires a set of detailed
step by step instructions called software or computer program that directs a
computer how to perform a specific task. At one time organizations and
individuals had to write most of the software they wanted to use. But today
most organizations purchase commercially written programs. Even then working as
a computer programmer for a business, government agency or software publisher
is a challenging carrier. In practice the term software is used to describe a
commercial product which might include more than a single program. There is no
such thing as "software’s" or "one software". The term
"SOFTWARE PACKAGE" is used when dealing with a particular example of
software. Software package contains disks or a CD-ROM and a reference manual.
System software will come provided with each computer and is necessary
for the computers operation. This software acts as an interpreter between the
computer and user. It interprets your instructions into binary code and
likewise interprets binary code into language the user can understand. In the
past you may have used MS-DOS or Microsoft Disk Operating System, which was a
command line interface. This form of system software required specific commands
to be typed. Windows 95 is a more recent version of system software and is
known as a graphical interface. This means that it uses graphics or
"icons" to represent various operations. You no longer have to
memorize commands; you simply point to an icon and click.
Program software is software used to write computer programs in
specific computer languages.
Application software is any software used for specified applications
The computers understand
only the machine language. It consists of zero and one. Then came the assembly
language, which is the combination of those zeros and ones. The later
generations invented low-level languages like ‘C’, which is close to the
natural language. Then came the high level languages, which uses highly sophisticated
compilers to translate the data to the machine language.
Considering the diversity in the use of computers, programming
languages with different goals have been developed. Computer's architecture has
an effect on the language design.
The first high level language that was used for scientific applications
was FORTRAN and then there was ALGOL60.For business applications there was
COBOL. For artificial intelligence was LISP and PROLOG a dialect of LISP. For
system programming in IBM MAINFRAME computer was PL/S a dialect of PL/I. for
digital BLISS, a language at a level just above assembly language.
the UNIX operating system is entirely written in 'C'. Programming languages are
categorized into four bins namely imperative, functional, logic and object
Let's know the reasons for
studying programming languages before introducing yourself to the programming
REASONS FOR STUDYING THE
CONCEPTS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
capacities to express ideas
background for choosing appropriate languages
ability to learn new languages
A short history is mentioned for some of the programming languages noted in the