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Computer Appreciation

1.5 Application of computers

 

Business: Inventory Control, Accounts Management, Purchase and Sales Management.

 

Scientific: Number Crunching, Astronomical Calculations, Monitoring of Space vehicles.

 

Engineering: Computer Aided Design(CAD), Computer Aided Manufacturing(CAM).

 

Medical: Medical Diagnosis, Patient Management.

 

Training and Education: Computer Aided Instructions (CAI), Computer Aided Learning (CAL).

 


1.6 Commonly used terms

a)   Hardware :- The physical parts of a computer system are called hardware. Even though many different manufacturers make personal computers and they come in just as many shapes and sizes, they all have the same building blocks.

  • Input device

  • System unit

  • Output device

You use an input device, such as a keyboard or mouse, to enter instructions and information into the computer. The system unit, sometimes called a Central Processing Unit or CPU, is the box that contains all of the electronic components that process your data. An output device, such as a monitor, is the way you get information out of your computer.

 

b)   Software :- A computer requires a set of detailed step by step instructions called software or computer program that directs a computer how to perform a specific task. At one time organizations and individuals had to write most of the software they wanted to use. But today most organizations purchase commercially written programs. Even then working as a computer programmer for a business, government agency or software publisher is a challenging carrier. In practice the term software is used to describe a commercial product, which might include more than a single program. There is no such thing as "software’s" or "one software". The term "SOFTWARE PACKAGE" is used when dealing with a particular example of software. Software package contains disks or a CD-ROM and a reference manual.

 

c)    Firmware :- Firmware is programming that is inserted into programmable read-only memory, thus becoming a permanent part of a computing device. Firmware is created and tested like software (using microcode simulation). When ready, it can be distributed like other software and, using a special user interface, installed in the programmable read-only memory by the user. Firmware is sometimes distributed for printers, modems, and other computer devices.


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